A Brief History of Printed Circuit Boards

PCB The development of modern printed circuit boards began in the start of the 20th century. Albert Hanson described multiple layers of flat foil conductors which were laminated on a board in 1903. In 1904, Thomas Edison worked on chemical ways of plating conductors using linen paper. In 1913, Arthur Berry patented a method on print-and-etch in Britain, while Max Schoop did the same in the United States, using flame to spray metal onto a board with the help of a patterned mask. In 1927, Charles Durcase patented an electroplating method for circuit patterns.


In 1936, Paul Eisler invented the printed circuit. The U.S. used this technology on a larger case during World War II in 1943. It was later released commercially after the war, but it wasn’t until the mid-50s when they became common in the consumer market. This was due to the U.S. Army’s auto-sembly process. Geoffrey Dummer did similar work in Britain at about the same time.

Before PCBs came to be, point-to-point construction was prevalent –

John Sargrove’s “Electronic Circuit Making Equipment” (ECME) predated printed circuit boards but performed similar tasks. In 1936 to 1947, the ECME sprayed metal onto plastic boards, and was able to create three radios per minute.

During World War II, developing anti-aircraft proximity fuse needed circuits that can withstand gunfire – and that can be mass produced. The Globe Union’s Centralab Divisionproposed a prototype which met these requirements. For conductors, they would screen-print a ceramic plate with metallic paint, and use carbon material for resistors. Subminiature vacuum tubes and ceramic disc capacitors will be soldered – a technique that ended up with a patent and was classified by the U.S. Army.

It wasn’t until 1984 that the head of this project, Harry W –

Rubinstein was awarded by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) the Cledo Brunetti Award for his contributions.

The original PCBs had drilled holes for every wire of each component. The components had wire leads, which were passed through holes and then soldered to the trace. This is called the “through-hole” method, which is still used by some today. The Auto-Sembly process was developed in 1949 by Stanislaus Danko and Moe Abramson of the U.S. Army Signal Corps. The method involved inserting component leads into a copper foil with an interconnected pattern, and then were dip soldered. They obtained a patent which was assigned to the army.

As the techniques on lamination and etching were developed, the process has developed more and more like the standard printed wiring boards fabrication known today. Now, of course, soldering can be automated by passing the printed circuit boards over a wave or ripple of molten solder using machines. The holes and wires are wasteful, though, because drilling holes is very costly and the excess wires are just cut off.

pcb-fabricationAs the 1980s came in, surface-mount components were used significantly, and through-hole components less frequently. As a result, smaller boards came to be, ending in lower costs for production and better functionality. However, there has been a lot of difficulty experienced in servicing boards that are faulty.

A lot of the measurements used in the design of printed circuit boards have been expressed in units called “mils” (multiples of a thousandth of an inch). For instance, to be considered breadboard-friendly, through-hole components have pins found on a grid spacing of 100 mils. On the other hand, surface-mount components use a 50-mil pin pitch.

All in all, PCBs have gone through lots of changes – most of them for the better. Now, the manufacturing is less labor-intensive, more cost-effective, and efficient for both manufacturers and consumers. This is great news since PCBs are used in almost every electronic appliance and machine today.

Miscellaneous Custom Coins

From initially being exclusive to military officials, challenge coins are now being used by various service units and civilian organizations. In particular, those serving in the U.S. government, in civic organizations, and in businesses and conglomerates are now permitted to carry their own custom coins. Listed below are some of the most notable challenge coins that you can find outside of the Armed Forces.

Coins for Government Personnel

Specially designed and minted coins are regularly handed out to the White House staff, the Presidential drivers and the President’s Secret Service Agents. Each coin bears their unit’s insignia and motto. While most of these coins are traditionally circular in shape, the coins carried by the White House Military Aides are football-shaped in honor of their role as the carriers of the atomic football.

Coins for Civic Organizations

The recent boom in the custom coin industry means that even an ordinary citizen can have his own custom coins designed and minted. Members of civic organizations such as the Boy Scouts can already have their own custom-made challenge coins. Likewise, servicemen who are part of the fire department or of the police force can have their own insignias embossed or printed onto their coins.

More recently, independent organizations who want to strengthen the bonds between their members have started to commission their own custom coins. Cosplayers, Harley Davidson enthusiasts and other members of similar clubs have created their own challenge coins as a way of demonstrating their allegiance. These coins can also be used to raise funds for their respective organizations since they can function as highly collectible mementos.

Coins for Firemen

Although professional and volunteer firefighters may not necessarily have a considerable amount of money to spend on creating their own custom coins, the availability of numerous coin manufacturers has made it possible for them to purchase quality coins at an affordable price. After all, their dedication and commitment to their profession is almost unmatched and it seems only fitting that they are given the chance to carry a memento, which reflects their admirable spirit.


Likewise, the manufacturers of these coins can guarantee that each client will be given impeccable customer service regardless of their budget or social standing. The ordering process has been considerably simplified and the designs are easily customizable.

Customers can choose to create an original design with the assistance of the in-house graphic artists, or simply recreate an existing challenge coin design. The coins can have designs rendered in traditional metallic finishes such as copper, brass, silver, or gold. Conversely, they can be made in more colorful and unique styles.

As a bonus, designing and revisions are usually offered free of charge so you can add as many details as you want to your motto or insignia. This also means that you can create separate designs for the main department as well as individual designs for the smaller units and fire squads.

Coins for Corporations and Businessmen

While corporations and conglomerates may not necessarily need representations of their employee’s valor and courage, they can still have custom coins created to recognize their employee’s achievements. Similarly, customized coins can be used to commemorate the special events, accomplishments, or milestones achieved by the entire company.

Though they may not be as majestic or as imposing statues, framed plaques, or glittering medals, custom company coins are nonetheless worthwhile mementos that can be proudly displayed. Find a reputable coin manufacturer and you can be sure to receive quality products that will rival any other prestigious company award.

In fact, the coins may be even better able to represent the prestige of your company’s long held traditions and reputation. They can be specifically designed to portray the company’s vision and values in a single design, motto, artwork, or logo. You don’t also need to allot a large budget for these services since the design services will be given for free and you can have your business coins revised until you are satisfied.

Coins for Personal Use

Even an ordinary citizen can have his own logos and mottos engraved onto a coin. Families can place their coat of arms on their coins and give them out during family reunions. Meanwhile, schools and independent organizations can hand out customized coins or medallions to instill a sense of pride and unity in their alma mater.

Additionally, you will not have to limit yourself to a traditionally round coin. You can have your coins made in the shape of your organization’s specific logo. Coin manufacturers can easily use various technologies and techniques such as cross-cutting, wave-cutting, and rope-cutting, to make the designs more unique.

For various unique custom coins, www.challengecoins4less.com is a best option.

Etiquette For Golf Apparel

Golf is one of those sports where wearing proper golf apparel is as important as playing well on the greens. In golf, what you wear matters. Put on the wrong clothes and golf course management will have the right to turn you away from playing.

Basic Apparel For Men


golf shirt It is a must for a male golfer to wear a collared shirt while on the putting greens. Traditionally, the shirt fabrics that are allowed are polyester, microfiber, and cotton. If you have a preference for turtleneck shirts it may be necessary to check with the course management first if they allow because some do not. For protection against the sun, it is often alright to wear a long sleeved shirt underneath a short sleeved collared shirt.

Pants & Shorts

The traditional fabric for pants & shorts that are allowed on golf courses are cotton and khakis. Shorts that are above the knee area are often not permitted, only shorts that reach the knee area or longer can be worn on the greens. Choose between a knee length pair with flat or pleated front.


Golf ShoesPossibly the most important part of golf apparel is footwear. In fact, all golfers consider their golf shoes an actual game equipment, not any different from their golf clubs. The reason for this is golf shoes provide stability, traction & comfort during a long day of golf. Stability & traction are required for a good swing. And comfort of course for walking on the golf course for hours on end during a game.


Traditionally, knee length tube socks have been worn on the golf course along with knee length shorts. This has since changed with new golfers preferring barely there ankle length socks tucked inside the shoes.

Socks are required apparel by all golf courses. One you will thank them for as they add so much comfort to your feet after long hours of play on the greens. Golf courses do not discriminate on sock length. As long as you wear them and they complement your entire apparel then you are good to go. Here www.rockbottomgolf.com , you can get best different option of Golf Apparel.


For protection against the sun & the occasional rain shower during a day on the golf course, hats are a good addition to the golf apparel. Although not a requirement by golf courses it is often practical to wear one, and have one. The most common hats you will see golfers wear on the greens are sun visors, baseball caps, ‘Ben Hogan’ caps or straw hats.

Golf Apparel For Women


Never wear a halter top, regular T-shirt, or a tank top when playing golf on any course. Women golfers who are regulars at playing golf know to wear only a polo style shirt on the greens. It does not matter if it is short sleeved or long sleeved, whether it is V-necked, buttoned down, or zip topped. As long as it is a polo shirt then it is a go on any golf course.

Jackets & Sweaters

Golf JacketsOn a cool rainy day, whatever you do, never ever bring a sweatshirt or denim jacket with you if you are planning to play golf. You will be turned away. The best option is to layer it. Put on a turtleneck or long sleeved polo shirt instead. Then add on a sweater or vest.

If the day is a bit colder than usual or rain suddenly pours, then add a bit more protection on top of the shirt & vest, perhaps a wind shirt or light jacket? If you go this direction then you won’t hear any complaints from course management.


With golf it is all about comfort & lots of leg room to move around in terms of apparel. So, tight fitting denim jeans, revealing sun dresses, sweatpants, and clunky athletic pants will be frowned upon. For lady golfers, slacks are the preferred apparel.

Head Gear

A great way to have fun with your golf apparel is with hats. There are tons of styles to choose from. And since head gear is not required uniform there are almost no restrictions on the hat that golfers can use on the golf course.

Shoes & Socks

GolfWhen it comes to shoes & socks the same rule applies for both male & female golfers. It does not matter whether you wear a knee length tube pair or ankle length socks. As long as you have socks on that complement your entire golfing apparel for the day then you are good to play on any golf course.

Now that you know what you’ll need to play the game, visit us at RockBottomGolf.com for hassle-free shopping.

Are Silicone wristbands Right For You?

Wristbands can be made out of recyclable materials, plastic, vinyl and silicone. Similar to bracelets, wristbands are placed and worn around the wrist, but, unlike bracelets, they are used to function for more than a few purposes and reasons. There are different types of wristbands in the market today which caters to a personal need or a company’s need.

Rubber braceletsA number of wristband types include, Cloth or Fabric Wristbands, Cash Tag wristbands, Duplicate Numbered Bands, Custom Numbered Wristbands, Holographic Wristbands, Multi-Color Wristbands, Tear-Off Stub Wristbands, Tyvek Wristbands, Plastic Wristbands, Bar Code or Variable Data, Custom Imprinting Wristbands, Vinyl Wristbands and Silicone Wristbands.

To help you know more, we’ve prepared a brief discussion of each.

1. Cloth or Fabric Wristbands are made from polyester which can either be printed according to your unique design or woven. They are made for proper fit, durability and being water proof.

2. Cash Tag Wristbands are made from three layers of recyclable vinyl material making it durable and sturdy. It works by having three to five removable stubs. These are usually used for games, relay matches, entry points, food or drink stubs and rides. It may come in different colors to match a certain theme of an event.

3. Duplicate Numbered Bands are made from polyethylene fiber. This ensures its resilience and sturdiness. It is resistant to liquid, economical and is made to fit your comfort. This wristband is usually used to identify paid individuals during an event. One can uniquely make it stand out by choosing different colors to identify a category of participants.

4. Custom Numbered Wristbands are similar to Duplicate Numbered Bands. Imprinted on them are identification numbers. This is used to track the number of bands used. They, too, come in several colors depending on the host’s theme and taste.

5. Holographic Wristbands or what they call Energy Bracelets are bands designed to capture your imagination. These are said to function to stimulate and enhance one’s energy or chi after it has reacted positively to the body. These are usually used by athletes.

6. Multi-Color Wristbands screams its meaning. These are wristbands showcasing your brand in different striking colors. These colors are carefully picked and mapped out to bring out the voice behind your brand. These wristbands can be made from vinyl, plastic material or Tyvek.

7. Tear-Off Stub Wristbands or what they call Events wristbands are in short great for events. Why? Because of their easy pull off stubs, they are made to standout during events such as carnival shows, fund raising events, mall shows, and amusements parks. They are made to fit everybody having a one-time push on lock which does not easily get ripped off to be used by another individual. It’s not only sturdy but safe.

8. Tyvek Wristbands are great for short term use such as entry tickets and identification. These wristbands is showcased in different colors to match your event plus these are made from recyclable materials.


9. Plastic Wristbands are waterproof, secure and strong enough for long term use. These have a one-time locking design to provide security for your participants and guests during their stay at your special event. These provide comfort during fit and can also be color coded and be uniquely designed and decorated in accordance to your liking and criteria.

10. Bar Code or Variable Data Wristbands are the answers to your huge event. It may be a concert or a fund raising event, for as long as you expect and cater to many people, you are in luck to have this type of wristband. It is not only numbered but also bar coded. This allows you to track and monitor your guests wisely and efficiently. It gives you a clearer picture of the amount of guests and participants you have and gives you an upper hand at checking on them as well.

11. Custom Imprinting Wristbands are made from vinyl, plastic or Tyvek. Uniquely imprinted with your logos is the main function of this type of wristband. These are color coded wristbands carrying your special logo and text. Not only does it carry your brand but magnifies it as well.

12. Vinyl Wristbands are made to match not just your style but the athlete in you. This is made both for short term and long term use. These are made from multiple layers of vinyl to create a stronger and more resilient type of wristband.

13. Silicone Wristbands are made from silicone material. Definitely, these are bound to last. When it comes to a company’s choice of wristbands, silicone wristbands rise up among the others. Not only is cheap, it also is an attraction to experience.

Among the different types of wristbands, have you decided on what to choose for your next event? If you want a strong voice for your brand with economically structural durability, then our Silicone Wristbands might just be the best choice for you. It monitors. It speaks.

The Wristband Factory is changing the way you order and raise funds with high quality silicone wristbands.

Dropping The Pounds With HCG Drops

There are a lot of different routes that you can take today in terms of health and wellness. There’s so many that you could find yourself losing sight of what works and what doesn’t. It’s for that reason that you should take a step back and see what is working for many people, and what is not working at all. If you do the math, you will see that there are some options that are definitely worth pursuing, and others that aren’t so grand after all. With that in mind, consider the following elements that are going to help you build on the right framework and perhaps get you to the right involvement within the world of losing weight and more. There are pillars to the idea of sustainable weight management, and it’s all in regards to supplements, diet, exercise, and continued lifestyle improvement.

The Goal of Weight Loss 

HCG DropsThe numbers play a great role in this case. You’ll find that the average person trying to lose a few pounds is going to be isolating the framework of what they are working on through the lens of what the scale says. If you are only cycling through what your scale is saying, you are going to miss out over time. You need to focus on your body’s contours, changes, and movements. When you look at that, and you do not focus on the numbers, you are going to end up with a much brighter solution. If you don’t do that, you are going to find that the weight loss that you may get is marginal at best.

The goal here is not to just lose weight, but to burn fat. Burning fat will give you the best results and you will see yourself losing more than gaining, over time. It’s something that is definitely worth cycling through for the future, and something that should get you motivated into the right arenas.

Moving Into Action 

To heighten the senses and get the body producing more metabolic enzymes, you’re going to want to take on an exercise plan. This doesn’t need to be a complex one, it could be rather simple, but it’s important that you seek one out. Whether you look into joining a gym, or you cycle through a variety of options, you should definitely get into motion. The more you focus on this, the better off you are going to be in regards to the results that you’re going to sustain overall.

Dropping significant weight can be a matter of movement and diet, but you’ll want to sustain the losses after they start to come through. In order to do that, you’ll need supplements that boost the body’s response to your movements. That means adding things like hcg drops, which can help with the metabolism of fat. When you turn fat cells into energy, you are going to make serious gains, and that’s a plus. Making these gains is something that will pay off dividends down the line, and something that should not be forgotten in the long term.

At the end of the day, you will find that working with exercise, dieting a bit, and using hcg drops is the answer to sustainable, management of weight. Whether you want to drop a few pounds or you want to just get more fit, a helping hand is found within the cycle of these elements. They’ve been tested time and time again, and you’re definitely going to want to pursue them moving forward. Check them out and see how they can help you make gains today. You’ll be surprised how well they can work.